What is micropenis?

Micropenis is a normally-structured penis below the normal size range for an infant. The length of a male newborn's penis is between 2.8 to 4.2 cm with a circumference of 0.9 to 1.3 cm. This measurement is taken by carefully stretching the penis and measuring from tip to base. A penis length of less than 1.9 cm is usually considered micropenis.

What causes micropenis?

Micropenis can occur alone but usually combines with other disorders. An abnormal level of hormones involved in development of the sexual organs occur with micropenis and may involve the pituitary gland or hypothalamus.

What are the symptoms of micropenis?

While each child may experience symptoms differently, the most common is an infant penis size less than 1.9 cm when gently stretched. In some cases, low sperm count resulting in infertility or decreased fertility occurs in adulthood. Micropenis sometimes occurs with other disorders.

How is micropenis diagnosed?

Diagnosis is usually made by physical examination. Your child may later be referred to a pediatric urologist specializing in disorders and care of the urinary tract and male genital tract as well as a pediatric endocrinologist specializing in hormones.

What is the treatment for micropenis?

We determine specific treatments based on:

  • child's age, overall health, and medical history
  • child's tolerance for specific medications, procedures, or therapies
  • expectations for the course of the condition
  • extent of the condition
  • your opinion or preference

There is no cure for micropenis, however, hormone therapy may be used to stimulate penile growth in some children and other treatment options will be discussed.

End-Stage Kidney Disease

Twenty-five percent of children who need a kidney transplant or dialysis due to end-stage renal disease have urologic issues that require surgery. Reconstructive surgeons at NewYork-Presbyterian/Morgan Stanley Children's Hospital work with the transplant team and perform procedures before and after transplant to enhance the survival of a transplanted kidney, reduce the risk of infections, and improve urinary function in these children.